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Piero della Francesca Timeline

Piero della Francesca Timeline


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  • C. 1420-1492

    Vida del artista renacentista italiano Piero della Francesca.

  • 1452 - 1465

    El artista renacentista italiano Piero della Francesca produce su ciclo de frescos sobre la Leyenda de la Cruz Verdadera para la iglesia de San Francesco, Arezzo.

  • C. 1455

    El artista renacentista italiano Piero della Francesca produce su tabla pintada La Flagelación de Cristo.

  • C. 1459

    El artista renacentista italiano Piero della Francesca pinta frescos en las bibliotecas del Vaticano.

  • C. 1465

    El artista renacentista italiano Piero della Francesca produce su fresco La resurrección de Cristo.

  • C. 1470

    El artista renacentista italiano Piero della Francesca realiza su retrato del duque de Urbino, Federico da Montefeltro.

  • C. 1472

    El artista renacentista italiano Piero della Francesca realiza su retablo Madonna con el duque de Urbino como donante.

  • C. 1474

    El artista renacentista italiano Piero della Francesca escribe su tratado Sobre la perspectiva en la pintura.


Piero della Francesca Timeline - Historia


Piero della Francesca | Ciclo de frescos en la Cappella Maggiore de San Francesco en Arezzo

Piero della Francesca fue prácticamente olvidado durante siglos después de su muerte, pero considerado desde su redescubrimiento a principios del siglo XX como uno de los artistas supremos del quattrocento. Nació en Borgo San Sepolcro (ahora Sansepolcro) en Umbría y pasó gran parte de su vida allí. Su obra principal es una serie de frescos sobre la Leyenda de la Cruz Verdadera en el coro de San Francisco de Arezzo.
los Basílica de San Francesco es una iglesia de la Edad Media tardía en Arezzo, dedicada a San Francisco de Asís. los Cappella Maggiore alberga el ciclo de frescos de Piero della Francesca que representa el Leyenda de la Verdadera Cruz. Este ciclo de frescos se encuentra en la Basílica de San Francesco, en Arezzo, y es la máxima expresión del arte renacentista.
El Crucifijo del siglo XIII con San Francisco ya estaba en la iglesia cuando Piero della Francesca pintó al fresco la capilla que se ha colocado recientemente sobre el altar mayor.

La pintura del presbiterio comenzó con un encargo de la familia Aretine Bicci, que llamó al pintor Bicci di Lorenzo para pintar la gran bóveda de crucería. En 1452, a la muerte de Bicci, solo se habían pintado en la bóveda los cuatro evangelistas, así como el arco de triunfo con la Juicio final y dos Doctores de la Iglesia. Piero della Francesca fue llamado para completar el trabajo. Según un documento, lo hizo en dos etapas, las obras se detuvieron durante 1458-1459 y se completaron en 1466. [2]

Piero della Francesca & rsquos ciclo de frescos de la Historia de la Verdadera Cruz se considera la mayor obra maestra de Piero della Francesca & rsquos y narra una historia medieval sobre la cruz en la que Jesús fue crucificado. [1] El tema dominante del ciclo es el triunfo de la cruz que, desde la muerte de Adán, ha estado guiando al hombre hacia la salvación. Los frescos ocupan tres niveles en los muros laterales y el muro este, rodeando un gran ventanal. Piero della Francesca no siguió un orden cronológico, prefiriendo concentrarse en la creación de correspondencias simétricas entre las diversas escenas.

El legado de la cronología & quot reordenada & quot de Piero tiene dos partes:

1. Saltar por el espacio recuerda uno de los caóticos ritmos de un romance medieval, el Roman de la Rose, por ejemplo. Tales historias, que aparentemente a San Francisco le encantaba cuando era niño, están llenas de aventuras, con caballeros incondicionales y bellas damas, y siempre con un matiz moral y un objetivo religioso. Sus estructuras están llenas de paradas y comienzos sorprendentes, cambios de dirección y cambios de tiempo que la mente moderna considera irracionales. La Leyenda de la Cruz Verdadera, tal como se desarrolló, surgió de esta misma tradición, y Piero no quería que sus espectadores olvidaran este hecho.

2. Al mismo tiempo, la disposición de Piero & rsquos hace que la historia adopte otro carácter, uno que es abstracto por naturaleza y serio en implicaciones. Las dos lunetas en la parte superior de las paredes laterales coinciden, mostrando el comienzo y el final de la historia, cada una centrada en la madera de la cruz. Los segundos niveles coinciden en que expresan el poder de las mujeres reales que están inspiradas divinamente para reconocer el bosque sagrado. En la pared del altar, las escenas a ambos lados de la ventana coinciden: los niveles superiores muestran a los profetas del Antiguo Testamento que previeron la llegada del cristianismo y la historia de la cruz, los segundos niveles representan una forma de relieve cómico con matices serios. Son escenas de género de cada día que aluden a la pasión de Cristo & rsquos y a la Eucaristía. Los niveles inferiores también coinciden. Ambas son escenas de anunciación: una del nacimiento de Cristo, la otra del nacimiento del cristianismo. Los niveles inferiores de las paredes laterales coinciden. Son escenas de batalla: una es una victoria incruenta sobre sus compañeros romanos a la señal de la cruz, y la otra es una sangrienta batalla por la victoria sobre los blasfemos infieles. La Figura 3 muestra este "Equilibrio Temático". El efecto de este nuevo arreglo crea la simetría y el equilibrio, la gravedad y la dignidad requeridas por Aristóteles y Horacio para crear poesía épica. A fuerza de su disposición reorganizada, Piero logró lo que podría llamarse la primera epopeya moderna.

Los principales episodios representados son:

Piero della Francesca pintó un autorretrato en El descubrimiento y la prueba de la verdadera cruz
Equilibrio temático

6 La victoria de Constantino (la victoria de Constantino sobre Majencio en la batalla del Puente Milvio)

Piero della Francesca, Muerte de Adán, Seth se encuentra con el Arcángel Miguel, C. 1466, fresco (390 x 747 cm), San Francesco, Arezzo

Piero della Francesca, Adoración del Santo Madera y el Encuentro de Salomón y la Reina de Saba

Según la leyenda, la Reina de Saba adoró las vigas hechas del árbol e informó a Salomón que el Salvador colgaría de ese árbol y así desmembraría el reino de los judíos. Esto hizo que Salomón lo cortara y lo enterrara, hasta que fue encontrado por los romanos.

El árbol que creció en la tumba de Adán fue talado en tiempos del rey Salomón, pero su madera no se podía usar para nada, por lo que fue arrojado como un puente sobre un arroyo. La reina de Saba, camino al rey Salomón, estaba a punto de pisar el puente, cuando de milagro supo que el Salvador sería crucificado en una cruz de ese bosque. En lugar de pisar la madera, se arrodilló y expresó su adoración. (La Reina de Saba en Adoración del Bosque. Parte izquierda del fresco 8). Luego se apresuró a hablar con Salomón para contarle su revelación (El encuentro de Salomón y la reina de Saba. Parte derecha del fresco 8). Después de que Salomón se enteró del mensaje divino, entendió que la madera causaría el fin del reino de los judíos, y ordenó que se quitara el puente y se enterrara la madera. (Entierro de la Madera, fresco 7).
Siglos más tarde, María recibió el mensaje del ángel de que había sido elegida para dar a luz al Salvador (Anunciación. Fresco 10) Las precauciones de Salomón no ayudaron: se encontró la madera y Jesús fue crucificado en una cruz hecha de ella.

Adoración del Santo Madera (Vista izquierda) Detrás de la Reina de Saba, arrodillada en adoración, está su séquito de damas aristocráticas en espera, con sus frentes altas (según la moda de la época) enfatizando la forma redonda de sus cabezas y la forma cilíndrica del cuello. . Sus mantos de terciopelo envuelven suavemente sus cuerpos, llegando hasta el suelo. La regularidad casi perfecta de la composición se ve subrayada por los dos árboles del fondo, cuyas hojas se ciernen como paraguas sobre los dos grupos de mujeres y de mozos que sostienen los caballos. Y, sin embargo, la constante atención de Piero a la regularidad de las proporciones y la construcción según la perspectiva nunca da paso a composiciones artificialmente sofisticadas, simetrías esquemáticas o algo forzado.

Encuentro de Salomón y la Reina de Saba (vista derecha) Esta famosa escena se desarrolla dentro de una estructura arquitectónica, animada por decoraciones de mármol de colores. Todo parece creado de acuerdo con principios arquitectónicos: incluso las tres damas que están detrás de la Reina están colocadas para formar una especie de ábside de iglesia abierta detrás de ella. Existe una verdadera sensación de profundidad espacial entre los personajes que presencian el evento y sus cabezas, una detrás de la otra, se colocan en diferentes planos. Esta distinción de espacios espaciales se ve acentuada también por las diferentes tonalidades de color, con las que Piero ha reemplazado por completo en esta etapa de su carrera su técnica de delinear las formas utilizadas en frescos anteriores.

Hay un sentimiento general de ritualidad solemne, más bien como una ceremonia laica: desde la gravedad sacerdotal de Salomón hasta la dignidad aristocrática de las damas. Cada figura, gracias al mirador ligeramente rebajado, se vuelve más imponente y gracioso. Piero incluso logra hacer que la característica figura del cortesano gordo de la izquierda, vestida de rojo, parezca digna.


La reunión de Salomón y
la reina de Saba


Entierro de la madera

Piero della Francesca, Entierro de la madera, C. 1466, fresco 390 x 747 cm, (detalle) San Francesco, Arezzo

En El entierro del bosque, el pesado modelado de Giovanni da Piemonte dibuja los rígidos pliegues de las prendas del portador y su cabello, bastante mecánicamente atados en manojos. En la Cruz, la veta de la madera, como un elegante elemento decorativo, forma un halo sobre la cabeza del primer oso, que aparece así como una prefiguración de Cristo camino del Calvario. El cielo cubre la mitad de la superficie del fresco y las nubes blancas irregulares están como incrustadas en la extensión del azul.

La eliminación de la pieza de madera recalcitrante es crucial para la continuidad de la Historia de la Verdadera Cruz, ya que identifica la ubicación de la madera y los rsquos durante el tiempo entre el Antiguo y el Nuevo Testamento. Es significativo que Piero disocie la imagen de este acto destructivo del noble rey, colocándola en el muro del altar, lo más lejos posible pero permaneciendo en el mismo lado del ábside y al mismo nivel.
Tres obreros entierran la madera

Tres hombres desaliñados luchan por empujar lo que ahora es una tabla de madera en un cuerpo de agua. El primero se ha despeinado la ropa en el esfuerzo; el segundo, empujándose hacia arriba con un palo, se muerde el labio por el esfuerzo. El tercero usa solo sus manos para empujar, mientras que la corona en su cabeza implica un poco de inclinación. Siguiendo las órdenes de Solomon & rsquos, están tratando de esconder la madera para siempre, pero sin éxito. Mucho más tarde, la madera subirá a la superficie de lo que se conoció como el estanque Probático, haciendo milagros al curar a los enfermos y cojos que vinieron a bañarse allí.

Piero ha resumido estos eventos centrándose en los trabajadores que no saben nada de su misión. Crea lo que parece ser una escena de género, nuevamente con relaciones implícitas al otro lado de la esquina. A la derecha, la parte trasera del trabajador borracho se yuxtapone y, por lo tanto, se equipara a los cuartos traseros de un caballo en la pared adyacente. Otro caballo cercano y ldquolaughs & rdquo en esta interacción. Al mismo tiempo, el trabajador principal, que expone sus partes inferiores, está obligado a profetizar la función futura de la madera adoptando la pose de 'Cristo cargando la cruz', incluso teniendo una especie de halo en la veta de la madera detrás de su cabeza. cabeza. La diagonal de la tabla se extiende más allá del marco y conduce a la siguiente escena de la secuencia.

Piero della Francesca, La Anunciación a María, C. 1455, fresco, 329 x 193 cm, San Francesco, Arezzo

Con la escena del Anunciación, la cronología de la historia entra en la época del Nuevo Testamento. Esta escena no se incluye normalmente en la leyenda de True Cross. Nunca inapropiada en ciclos relacionados con la teología de la salvación, la Anunciación puede haber sido requerida aquí en recuerdo de la importante indulgencia, otorgada en 1298 y a menudo renovada, otorgada a todos los visitantes que adoraron en la iglesia el 25 de marzo, fiesta de la Anunciación. .

Dios el padre y el ángel
Piero ha creado una ingeniosa composición de cuatro partes que combina cielo y tierra. Dios el Padre transportado en nubes en el cuadrante superior izquierdo emite rayos dorados de sus manos. [Muy poco oro, aplicado después de que el yeso está seco, permanece en cualquiera de los frescos.] En el mismo momento, el ángel Gabriel se posa abajo, en el patio de la casa de María y rsquos. Su silueta se recorta contra la entrada intrincadamente tallada, que está cerrada, cumpliendo la profecía de Ezequiel (44: 2 tal vez representado en la figura representada dos niveles arriba). Gabriel ofrece no un lirio sino una hoja de palma, anunciando así no solo la encarnación de Cristo, sino también la futura muerte y compasión de la misma María. La palma es conocida como la llave del paraíso, se perdió cuando Eva pecó pero regresó cuando María murió. El pecado de Eva se desbloquea con esta llave cuando Gabriel pronuncia el saludo Ave, su reverso.

La Virgen María
Piero pinta a María como una figura maciza, alta como una columna (otro de sus epítetos), de gran nobleza y aquiescencia. Su escala y comportamiento la califican como un símbolo de la Iglesia, mientras que su expresión y gracia están llenas de calidez humana. Su casa, & ldquoCasa Santa, & rdquo es una vivienda clasicista con incrustaciones de mármol. A través de la puerta abierta, se ve su tálamo o lecho nupcial, en alusión al Matrimonio de Cristo y Ecclesia que tiene lugar en la Anunciación. En el cuadrante superior derecho, la sombra de la barra del tapiz atraviesa el lazo para colgar, simbolizando de nuevo la virginidad ininterrumpida de Mary & rsquos. Más que cualquier otra escena, la Anunciación transforma el simbolismo medieval en una vista del nuevo mundo medido racionalmente del Renacimiento.

Piero della Francesca, El sueño de Constantino, C. 1455, fresco, 329 x 190 cm, San Francesco, Arezzo

Esta escena se desarrolla en medio de la noche. Dentro de su gran tienda, el Emperador duerme. Sentado en un banco bañado por la luz, un sirviente lo vigila y mira soñadoramente hacia el espectador, como en una conversación silenciosa. Con una atrevida innovación, que casi parece anticipar el concepto moderno de luz de Caravaggio, los dos centinelas en primer plano se destacan de la oscuridad, iluminados solo desde los lados por la luz proyectada desde el ángel de arriba.


Agnolo Gaddi, Sueño del emperador Heraclio (detalle), 1385-87, fresco, capilla mayor, Santa Croce

Piero della Francesca, Batalla entre Constantino y Majencio, C. 1458, fresco, 322 x 764 cm, San Francesco, Arezzo

Este episodio ciertamente tenía un importante significado oculto idealista y también tocaba eventos contemporáneos, en un momento en que Pío II estaba planeando una cruzada contra los turcos. De hecho, todos los intentos de reconciliar las dos iglesias habían fracasado, de modo que, después de la conquista turca de Constantinopla, la única solución parecía ser unir a todos los cristianos en la lucha contra el infiel.

En el fresco de Piero della Francesca, el rostro de Constantino es un retrato de Juan VIII Paleólogo, ex emperador de Oriente. Y así como Constantino había ido a la batalla, liderando a sus tropas con el símbolo de la Cruz, el Emperador moderno puede derrotar al Infiel dirigiendo a todos los ejércitos cristianos a la batalla. Pero más allá de este simbolismo, la batalla entre Constantino y Majencio se describe como un espléndido desfile, del que definitivamente se ha eliminado el estrépito de las armas. La ausencia de movimiento inmortaliza a los caballos con los cascos levantados en el acto de saltar, a los guerreros gritando con la boca abierta, todos fijados una vez más por las inflexibles reglas de construcción según la perspectiva lineal. En comparación con la Batalla de San Romano, pintada por Paolo Uccello unos veinte años antes y que fue uno de los mayores logros de esa perspectiva pictórica florentina que inspiró al joven Piero, en el fresco de Arezzo hay una profundidad de espacio totalmente nueva entre las figuras. . Una atmósfera realista, transmitida por la iluminación brillante, enfatiza los distintos planos espaciales. Dentro de esta composición, Piero della Francesca logró reproducir, gracias a su uso muy refinado de colores brillantes, todos los aspectos visuales de la realidad, incluso los más fugaces e inmateriales. Desde los reflejos de la luz en la armadura, a las sombras de los cascos de los caballos en el suelo, al cielo abierto con sus nubes primaverales sacudidas por el viento, la realidad de la naturaleza se reproduce exactamente, hasta en sus detalles más efímeros.

La victoria de Constantino | Según la leyenda que rodea la batalla, Constantino y Maxentius eran romanos, no se podía derramar sangre entre ellos. Majencio había ideado una artimaña mediante la cual el ejército de Constantino y rsquos se ahogaría en el Tíber. Parte de la revelación de Constantino & rsquos fue que con el poder de la Cruz su victoria estaba asegurada, y así, entrando en la refriega con solo el don angelical, ganó.

Constantino y su ejército | En el margen izquierdo de la grada se representa una porción de la cabeza de un caballo. Con este detalle, Piero insinúa que aún queda más ejército por salir de detrás del muro. En medio de un bosque de lanzas y cascos atronadores, la caballería, coronada por una gloriosa bandera de águila imperial, se calma mientras se mueve de izquierda a derecha y se detiene en la figura de Constantino, erguido sobre su caballo blanco. Extiende su brazo para mostrar la pequeña cruz [anteriormente de oro], el talismán del poder justo, la fe y la victoria. Su cabeza de perfil resplandece con una belleza masculina. Lleva un sombrero puntiagudo bizantino contemporáneo que, en la época de Piero & rsquos, se creía que estaba en el estilo de los antiguos. La corona imperial se encuentra detrás del ala, lo que indica que la batalla ya está ganada.

La derrota de Majencio | La escena de la mitad derecha del tiempo ha sufrido grandes pérdidas de pintura a lo largo de los siglos. Tiene lugar ante un paisaje toscano cerca de la fuente del Tíber. Con sus casas de campo y reflejos tranquilos en el agua (fíjense en los patos flotando en la superficie), la batalla se ha trasladado a las afueras de Arezzo. Las fuerzas de Maxentius están en vuelo. Un oficial ecuestre trepa por la orilla del río. Todo lo que se puede ver del propio Maxentius es la visera de su tocado, lo que indica que estaba en el mismo sombrero de estilo griego que Constantine & rsquos pero con los colores invertidos. Como perdedor, es identificado como innoble por su esclavo desnudo y derrotado, y por el blasón de basilisco venenoso en su bandera.

Piero della Francesca, La tortura de Judas el judío (detalle), c. 1455, fresco, 356 x 193 cm, San Francesco, Arezzo

Después de la conversión de Constantino y rsquos, su madre, la emperatriz Helena, también se convirtió en una devota cristiana y viajó a Jerusalén para buscar la Cruz Verdadera. Allí se entera de que sólo un hombre, irónicamente llamado Judas, sabe dónde está escondida la Cruz, y cuando se niega a revelar el secreto, los hombres de Helena & rsquos lo arrojan a un pozo seco. Después de siete días de tortura, Judas cede y es llevado a Helena donde, de mala gana, indica el paradero de la Cruz. Judas llevó a Helena al templo de Venus bajo el cual se escondían las tres cruces del Calvario. Helena ordenó que se destruyera el templo y debajo de él se descubrieron las tres cruces (El Descubrimiento y Prueba de la Cruz Verdadera, parte izquierda del fresco 8). Había que encontrar una manera de probar cuál de las tres cruces era aquella en la que Jesús había sido crucificado. Las cruces se colocaron en el centro del pueblo. Pasaban el cuerpo de un joven y Judas detuvo el cortejo. Cuando Judas sostuvo la tercera cruz sobre el cadáver, el joven volvió a la vida. Así se identificó la verdadera cruz. Esta se convirtió en una de las escenas más importantes de Piero della Francesca, el & lsquoEncontrar y la Prueba de la Verdadera Cruz & rsquo.

Dos jóvenes vestidos de manera bastante elegante tiran de la cuerda de una polea y llevan a Judas al nivel del suelo. Otro funcionario lo obliga a dar el último paso tirando de su cabello. La escena puede parecerle bastante extraña al principio, lo cual es, pero también tiene un significado más profundo. El sumo sacerdote del Antiguo Testamento Habacuc fue tomado por la fuerza por un ángel cuando se negó a entregarle comida a Daniel (en el foso de los leones y rsquos). Así, ambos hombres fueron llevados a donde no deseaban ir y terminaron realizando obras de un bien superior. Judas pronto lo entendió y por su devoción, más tarde fue nombrado obispo de Jerusalén. Esta escena, como su pareja en el lado opuesto de la ventana, a menudo se atribuye a uno de los asistentes de Piero & rsquos, Giovanni di Piamonte, quien siguió de cerca el estilo del maestro & rsquos, pero en una versión un poco más cruda que pedían sus sujetos. Las nubes que parecen estar frente a los soportes de las poleas fueron pintadas al fresco. Después de que se secó el yeso, se pintaron las estacas sobre las nubes al temple, algunas de las cuales se han desprendido.

Piero della Francesca ,, Descubrimiento y prueba de la verdadera cruz, c. 1460, fresco (356 x 747 cm), San Francesco, Arezzo

Esta es una de las composiciones más complejas y monumentales de Piero. El artista representa a la izquierda el descubrimiento de las tres cruces en un campo arado, fuera de los muros de la ciudad de Jerusalén, mientras que a la derecha, teniendo lugar en una calle de la ciudad, está la Prueba de la Cruz Verdadera. Su gran genio, que le permite inspirarse en el mundo simple del campo, en la sofisticada atmósfera cortesana, así como en la estructura urbana de ciudades como Florencia o Arezzo, alcanza en este fresco la altura de su variedad visual.

los Descubrimiento y prueba de la verdadera cruz es uno de los frescos más grandes de la iglesia. Se representan dos escenas en la misma imagen. A la izquierda, Judas ha indicado el lugar del entierro de las cruces. Judas se para junto al hoyo que se cavó. Le muestra la Cruz a la Reina Helena, que está acompañada por su corte, que incluye un enano. Unos hombres con palas se paran junto al pozo y un hombre levanta la Cruz del suelo, de la tierra, a Helena y Judas. Detrás de las rocas del Monte de los Olivos se levanta Jerusalén, que es una vista idealizada de Arezzo.

Piero della Francesca, Descubrimiento y prueba de la verdadera cruz, (detalle), c. 1460, fresco (356 x 747 cm), San Francesco, Arezzo

La escena de la izquierda está retratada como una escena de trabajo en el campo, y su interpretación de la labor del hombre como acto de heroísmo épico se enfatiza aún más con los gestos solemnes de las figuras, inmovilizadas en su trabajo ritual.

Al final de las colinas, bañado por la suave luz de la tarde, Piero ha representado la ciudad de Jerusalén. De hecho, es una de las vistas más inolvidables de Arezzo, encerrada por sus muros y embellecida por sus edificios de colores variados, desde el gris piedra hasta el rojo ladrillo. Este sentido del color, que permitió a Piero transmitir las diferentes texturas de los materiales, con su uso de diferentes tonalidades destinadas a distinguir entre estaciones y horas del día, alcanza su apogeo en estos frescos de Arezzo, confirmando la ruptura con la pintura florentina contemporánea.

En la escena de la derecha, Helena se ha arrodillado en medio del pueblo, debajo del templo de Minerva, cuya fachada en mármol de varios colores es tan similar a los edificios diseñados por Alberti, la emperatriz Helena y su séquito están parados alrededor de la camilla donde están los muertos. el joven yace de repente, tocado por el Bosque Sagrado, resucita. La Cruz inclinada, el busto en escorzo del joven con su perfil apenas visible, el semicírculo creado por las damas de honor de Helena e incluso las sombras que se proyectan en el suelo: cada elemento es cuidadosamente estudiado para construir un profundidad del espacio que, nunca antes en la historia de la pintura, se había representado con una tridimensionalidad tan estricta.

Piero della Francesca, Exaltación de la cruz, C. 1466, fresco (390 x 747 cm), San Francesco, Arezzo

Piero della Francesca, Batalla entre Heraclio y Cosroes, C. 1466, fresco, 329 x 747 cm, San Francesco, Arezzo

La Cruz Verdadera se hizo famosa a lo largo de los siglos al realizar milagro tras milagro. Según la leyenda, el rey sasánida Cosroes II (590-628 Khosrau en persa) codiciando su poder, robó la reliquia y la usó para subyugar a sus ciudadanos. Heraclio, emperador de Bizancio, en el año 528 d.C. vino con sus tropas a rescatar la cruz por la fuerza.


El Profeta Recto (¿Jeremías?), El joven de la derecha sostiene una banderola, que por alguna razón se dejó en blanco. Se ha sugerido a Isaías, quien profetizó el nacimiento virginal. Jeremías es aún más probable: Jeremías predijo la venida del Mesías, citando a Dios diciendo & ldquo; Levantaré a David un renuevo justo: y un rey reinará. . . y ejecutará juicio y justicia en la tierra & rdquo (23: 5). La interacción entre esta hermosa figura y el joven rubio al otro lado de la esquina, una de las vistas que el Modelo hace posible, sugiere que la joven descendencia de Adán, habiendo aprendido que la muerte es el resultado del pecado, escucha las palabras proféticas y percibe la redención futura. a través de la cruz.
A partir del parecido con el joven descalzo que aparece en la Flagelación de Piero, Silvia Ronchey reconoce a Geremia en la semejanza de Tomás Paleólogo, el hermano menor de Juan VIII y último déspota de Morea.
Thomas Palaiologos fue el hijo superviviente más joven del emperador bizantino [1] [2] [3] Manuel II Palaiologos y su esposa Helena Draga & scaron. Como otros hijos imperiales, Thomas Palaiologos se hizo déspota (déspota), y desde 1428 se unió a sus hermanos Theodore y Constantine en Morea. Tras la jubilación de Teodoro durante 1443, gobernó junto con Constantino, hasta que este último se convirtió en emperador (como Constantino XI) durante 1448 .. [5]

Profeta izquierda Ezequiel
El profeta Ezequiel proclamó: "Esta puerta se cerrará, no se abrirá, y nadie pasará por ella; porque el Señor el Dios de Israel ha entrado por ella, y se cerrará" (44: 2). Sus palabras fueron interpretadas como una descripción de la llegada del mesías y de la virginidad eterna de María, a quien se le da el epíteto & ldquoPorta Clausa & rdquo La figura & rsquos ubicación muy por encima de la escena de la Anunciación y la puerta cerrada en esa composición ayuda a identificar esta figura exclamativa.

En las paredes del arco del presbiterio hay frescos que representan un ángel, Cupido, San Luis, San Pedro, San Agustín y San Ambrosio.
Piero pintó la cabeza de un ángel fascinante (el ángel de la izquierda), dentro de un marco de cuatro hojas. Este es el ángel que luego miraría en la escena del Muerte de Adán. El otro ángel desaparecido se lo dejó a un asistente, identificado como Giovanni di Piamonte. [6]

Además, hay un bello cuadro de Santa María Magdalena, también de Piero della Francesca, junto a la puerta de la Sacristía.


Piero della Francesca, Flagellazione di Cristo (dettaglio, i tre astanti)

[1] & quot; El tema de las historias ilustradas por Piero está extraído de & quot; Leyenda dorada & quot de Jacopo de Voragine, un texto del siglo XIII que narra la historia milagrosa de la madera de la Cruz de Cristo. La historia cuenta cómo Adán, en su lecho de muerte, envía a su hijo Seth al Arcángel Miguel, quien le da algunas plántulas del árbol del pecado original para que las coloque en la boca de su padre en el momento de su muerte. El árbol que crece en la tumba del patriarca es cortado por el rey Salomón y su madera, que no se puede usar para nada más, es arrojada a través de un arroyo para que sirva de puente. La reina de Saba, en su viaje para ver a Salomón y escuchar sus sabias palabras, está a punto de cruzar el arroyo, cuando por un milagro se entera de que el Salvador será crucificado en ese bosque. Ella se arrodilla en devota adoración. Cuando Salomón descubre la naturaleza del mensaje divino recibido por la reina de Saba, ordena que se retire el puente y se entierre la madera, que provocará el fin del reino de los judíos. Pero la madera se encuentra y, tras un segundo mensaje premonitorio, se convierte en el instrumento de la Pasión. Tres siglos más tarde, justo antes de la batalla de Ponte Milvio contra Majencio, se le dice al emperador Constantino en un sueño que debe luchar en nombre de la Cruz para vencer a su enemigo. Tras la victoria de Constantino, su madre Helena viaja a Jerusalén para recuperar el bosque milagroso. Nadie sabe dónde está la reliquia de la Cruz, excepto un judío llamado Judas. Judas es torturado en un pozo y confiesa que conoce el templo donde se esconden las tres cruces del Calvario. Helena ordena que se destruya el templo, se encuentran las tres cruces y se reconoce la Cruz Verdadera porque provoca la resurrección milagrosa de un joven muerto. En el año 615, el persa Kin Chosroes roba la madera, configurándola como objeto de culto. El emperador oriental Heraclius hace la guerra al rey persa y, tras derrotarlo, regresa a Jerusalén con el Bosque Santo. Pero un poder divino impide que el emperador haga su entrada triunfal en Jerusalén. Entonces Heraclio, dejando a un lado toda pompa y magnificencia, entra en la ciudad portando la Cruz en un gesto de humildad, siguiendo el ejemplo de Jesucristo ''.
Ciclo Fresco en la Cappella Maggiore de San Francesco, Arezzo | www.wga.hu
Piero della Francesca terminó su ciclo de frescos con esta historia, pero la historia de la Vera Cruz no se detuvo.
A finales del siglo IV d.C. San Cirilo de Alejandría dejó una descripción de la ceremonia de veneración de la Verdadera Cruz el Viernes Santo en Jerusalén, cuando todos los fieles se reunieron en la Capilla de la Cruz, construida en un sitio del Calvario. San Cirilo también dejó la importante evidencia de que las reliquias de la Verdadera Cruz se distribuyeron por todo el mundo cristiano y fueron muy valoradas.
En 1187, el gran guerrero musulmán Saladino (Salah ed-Din Yusuf) derrotó a los caballeros cristianos en la batalla decisiva de Karnei-Hattin (Cuernos de Hattin) en Galilea (territorio del Israel moderno) y puso fin para siempre al gobierno de los cristianos sobre Tierra Santa. . La Cruz Verdadera, que los caballeros habían sacado de su capilla en Jerusalén y trajeron consigo a la batalla, desapareció. Se desconoce su futuro destino, pero los fragmentos de la Cruz Verdadera se conservaron durante siglos como los dones más preciosos.
Una de las reliquias de la Vera Cruz llegó a Venecia y los maravillosos milagros que realizó fueron conmemorados por diferentes artistas venecianos, especialistas en pintura narrativa.
La leyenda dorada, o la vida de los santos, volumen tres

Tres textos facilitaron la difusión de la leyenda de la Cruz a finales de la Edad Media: la Legenda Aurea de Jacobus de Voragine, el legendario anónimo titulado Der Heiligen Leben, y una obra milagrosa conocida como la Augsburger Heiligkreuzspiel.


[2] & quot; Salir con los frescos de Arezzo ha sido durante algún tiempo un tema de controversia. El trabajo fue iniciado por Bicci di Lorenzo en 1447-48, pero poco después enfermó y murió en 1452. Piero, como ya se mencionó, podría haber comenzado su trabajo mientras Bicci aún estaba vivo. El testimonio escrito del que deducimos que los frescos se terminaron data de 1466, pero para entonces podrían haber estado terminados durante años. Afortunadamente, existen referencias figurativas que nos permiten reducir la brecha entre el texto 146 ('j y las posibles fechas de inicio. En un Juicio de Salomón (ahora en Richmond, Virginia), por un maestro florentino, que está fechado c. 1460, there are echoes of the Arezzo fresco in the architectural forms, the shaping of the landscape and the oriental robes. In the frescoes of Santa Maria di Morrocco, near Tavernelle, finished before 1459 by a minor master (Giovanni di Francesco according to some critics, Giovanni di Piamonte according to others), there is an Annunciation which reworks many of the clements of Piero's own fresco of the subject, in particular the figure of God the Father who is copied almost stroke for stroke. Finally Giovanni di Francesco, who died in 1459, shows us that he knew of the Battle of Heraclius in his panel for Santa Croce which is now in the Casa Buonarroti.
Piero was in Rome on 16 October
1458, when they were installing the scaffolding for the frescoes he was to paint in the Vatican there is no doubt that he had been there for some time.103 On 14 January 1455 he was summoned to Borgo within forty days to finish the Polyptych of the Misericordia.1°4 So the date gap narrows as we move towards 1452, the date of Bicci di Lorenzo's death."
Carlo Bertelli, Piero della Francesca, New Haven & London, Yale University Press, 1992, p. 22.


[3] Historical Background | "St. Francis of Assisi came to Arezzo in the early years of the 13th century where he found a city torn with internal strife. With one of his many miracles, Francis brought peace to the community and blessed it with the vision of a great golden cross spreading its arms across the sky. As a result, his friars were allowed to congregate in a small community outside the walls and preach their message of love and salvation. By the early fifteenth century, the Franciscan Friary had moved into town where it built an imposing church dedicated to its founder. The apse end, rebuilt after a fire, was awaiting decoration. It was the custom in such establishments &ndash always in need of financial support &ndash to lease out space within the buildings to families to use as burial grounds. This privilege brought the friars monetary contributions for upkeep and/or enhancements of paintings, sculpture, and other church furnishings. The chapels on either side of the main apse had already been painted in the late 14th century, but the chancel itself, the Cappella Maggiore, which had been leased to the local Bacci family, was still without decoration.

After complaints from the friars in the 1440s, the Bacci sons sold a vineyard and other real estate to acquire the cash to begin paying for a campaign of fresco painting. As was usual, the administrators of the church, the Franciscans, were the ones who chose the appropriate subject matter, in this case, a subject dear to St. Francis&rsquos devotion, the Legend of the True Cross. The apocryphal narrative was set on the three vertical walls of the chapel, with paintings on the triumphal arch and the vault creating a scheme of redemption under the authority of Papal Rome. Bicci di Lorenzo, an aging artist from Florence, was hired. He and his workshop started at the top (frescos are always painted from the top down because of dripping), completing a scene of the Last Judgement high up on the entrance arch, and the four Evangelists on the webs of the ribbed vault. Apparently during this operation, in 1452 Bicci di Lorenzo grew ill and returned to Florence where he died. Members of his shop continued the work for a short while, painting most of the decorations of the ribs and other structural members and at the least, two standing figures of the four Fathers of the Church that are just below the vault. Then they too left Arezzo. Only after this sequence of events was Piero della Francesca called in to complete the project."
Lavin, M. A., et al., Piero della Francesca On-line: Story of the True Cross, San Francesco, Arezzo (Italy). In J. Trant and D. Bearman (eds). Museums and the Web 2009: Proceedings. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics. Published March 31, 2009 | www.archimuse.com


[4] The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle.Constantine reached Rome at the end of October 312 approaching along the Via Flaminia. He camped at the location of Malborghetto near Prima Porta, where remains of a Constantinian monument in honour of the occasion are still extant.

Events of the battle
It was expected that Maxentius would remain within Rome and endure a siege, as he already had successfully employed this strategy during the invasions of Severus and Galerius. He had already brought large amounts of food to the city in preparation. Surprisingly, he decided otherwise and met Constantine in open battle. Ancient sources about the event attribute this decision either to divine intervention (e.g., Lactantius, Eusebius) or superstition (e.g., Zosimus). They also note that the day of the battle was the same as the day of his accession (28 October), which was generally thought to be a good omen. Lactantius also reports that the populace supported Constantine with acclamations during circus games, though it is not clear how reliable his account of the events is.

Maxentius chose to make his stand in front of the Milvian Bridge, a stone bridge that carries the Via Flaminia road across the Tiber River into Rome (the bridge stands today at the same site, somewhat remodelled, named in Italian Ponte Milvio or sometimes Ponte Molle, soft bridge). Holding it was crucial if Maxentius was to keep his rival out of Rome, where the Senate would surely favour whoever held the city. As Maxentius had probably partially destroyed the bridge during his preparations for a siege, he had a wooden or pontoon bridge constructed to get his army across the river. The sources vary as to the nature of the bridge central to the events of the battle. Zosimus mentions it, vaguely, as being a wooden construction others specify that it was a pontoon bridge sources are also unclear as to whether the bridge was deliberately constructed as a collapsible trap for Constantine's forces or not.

The next day, the two armies clashed, and Constantine won a decisive victory. The dispositions of Maxentius may have been faulty as his troops seem to have been arrayed with the River Tiber too close to their rear, giving them little space to allow re-grouping in the event of their formations being forced to give ground. Already known as a skillful general, Constantine first launched his cavalry at the cavalry of Maxentius and broke them. Constantine's infantry then advanced, most of Maxentius's troops fought well but they began to be pushed back toward the Tiber Maxentius decided to retreat and make another stand at Rome itself but there was only one escape route, via the bridge. Constantine's men inflicted heavy losses on the retreating army. Finally, the temporary bridge set up alongside the Milvian Bridge, over which many of the troops were escaping, collapsed, and those men stranded on the north bank of the Tiber were either taken prisoner or killed. Maxentius' Praetorian Guard seem to have made a stubborn stand on the northern bank of the river. Maxentius was among the dead, having drowned in the river while trying to swim across it in a desperate bid to escape or, alternatively, he is described as having been thrown by his horse into the river. Lactantius describes the death of Maxentius in the following manner: "The bridge in his rear was broken down. At sight of that the battle grew hotter. The hand of the Lord prevailed, and the forces of Maxentius were routed. He fled towards the broken bridge but the multitude pressing on him, he was driven headlong into the Tiber."
From The Battle of the Milvian Bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

[5] Sylvia Ronchey, L'enigma di Piero. L'ultimo bizantino e la crociata fantasma nella rivelazione di un grande quadro, Milano, Rizzoli, 2006"(. )
[6] Perhaps initially Piero did not believe he would continue the decoration of the chapel and so he limited himself to completing the parts left unfinished, respecting completely the decorative structure of the aging master. To complete Bicci di Lorenzo's unfinished work Piero painted a fascinating angel's head, within a quatrefoil frame. This is the angel that would later look on the scene of the Death of Adam. The other missing angel he left to an assistant, identified as Giovanni di Piamonte."
Carlo Bertelli, Op. cit., pag. 79.

Arte en Toscana | Vidas de los artistas de Giorgio Vasari | Piero della Francesca

The interactive website, Piero della Francesca: The Legend of the True Cross was created by the department of Art History at Princeton and allows the viewer to move through the chapel&rsquos space and experience Piero Della Francesca&rsquos fresco cycle of medieval legends from many different vantage points. The user can follow the narrative chronologically, view the frescoes in detail, and notice thematic connections teased out by the images&rsquo relationship in space. The application is fully available on the Internet Explorer browser.
Navigate the Model (Internet Explorer Only)


The Baptism of Christ.

The Baptism of Christ is one of Piero della Francesca's earliest works. The geometrical formation of this painting stems from a square with a semicircle positioned at the top of the picture.

A dove hovers directly above the head of Christ. A strong vertical is created by the figure of Christ who takes centre stage in the painting. This vertical is further emphasised by John the Baptist, the tree, and the three onlookers to the left.

Reflections in the water mirror parts of the landscape, sky, and in the figures who are placed in perspective in the background. Piero’s knowledge of perspective can also be seen in the snaking waters that recede into the painting.


Piero della Francesca - Biography and Legacy

Around the year 1420, in the small Tuscan town of Borgo San Sepolcro, Piero della Francesca was born to Romana and Benedetto dell Francesca. His parents were merchants who plied their trade in leather and wool, through which they made a substantial living, and both of their families had a noble lineage. Piero was his parents' third child, and he likely would have attended school in his town where, according to 16th-century historian Giorgio Vasari, he applied himself to mathematics in particular.

Early Training and Work

At a very early age, as was often the case with Renaissance painters, Piero began an apprenticeship with the local painter Antonio d'Anghiari. As early as the age of 11, his work on painting "poles and candles" for the master is recorded.

Around 1438, Piero left his hometown and moved to Florence, a large city and the artistic hub of Tuscany. There he began to work with increasingly illustrious artists on large-scale commissions, such as the fresco paintings for the hospital of Santa Maria Nuovo with Domenico Veneziano. In this city, as well as those he travelled to during this time (including Ferrara, Venice and Rimini), Piero was exposed to a new milieu of painters, noblemen, academics and philosophers.

This cultural whirlwind allowed him to make connections with wealthy patrons, who would later commission artworks from him. More importantly, however, Piero interacted with the artistic and philosophical sources that would influence his mature works. He saw the neat lines and bold colors used by Fra Angelico, Filippo Lippi, Masaccio, and Brunelleschi. He also learned of new scientific and mathematical treatises, particularly those of Leon Battista Alberti that aimed to bring together mathematics, science, and art. Above all, Piero became entwined in the atmosphere of humanism in Florence. Renaissance Humanism was a philosophical stance that cherished the work of classical writers, the study of the humanities (including rhetoric, history, and poetry), and the enactment of "human virtue." In the artistic sphere, humanism resulted in the promotion of returning to classical ideals of the human figure, while introducing an element of individual expression.

Mature Period (1442-66)

Piero continued to return to his hometown, Borgo San Sepolcro regularly between trips to cities around Italy, and in 1442, he was elected to the town council. Having achieved his master status, Piero began to paint a range of works for patrons across Italy, from panel paintings to frescoes upon the walls of churches. He occasionally would work in his hometown and remained faithfully bound to it, even signing paintings as 'Piero from Borgo'. However, the fact that he never married allowed him a freedom to travel for his work.

While very little is known about Piero's personal life during this time, he forged a name for himself as a skilled painter, perhaps in part by using his family's status to make connections with illustrious patrons throughout the country. He was clearly well respected by his clients, who would allow him to spend several years working intermittently on their commissions, presumably confident that the finished works would be of the highest quality. Around 1452, he was called to complete a large-scale cycle of frescoes in the church of San Francesco in Arezzo, possibly his most ambitious project, which took him 14 years to complete. His popularity was such that he received patronage from both the Dukes of Urbino and Ferrara. In 1459 he received a commission which would be considered a crowning glory for any Italian Renaissance artist: a fresco for Pope Pius II in the Vatican (now destroyed).

Nurtured by the humanistic atmosphere of Florence, Piero also kept up his childhood interest in mathematics. In the 1450s, he copied out the classical writings of Archimedes on geometry and met his intellectual idol, Alberti. Piero began to write his own treatises on mathematics, perspective, and their relationship to painting in terms of shape, line, and perspective. These studies contributed greatly to his own style of painting for which he is so famous today.

Late Period (1467-88)

At the end of the 1460s, Piero moved to the court of Urbino, where he worked for the Duke and nobility for over a decade. Piero had already painted for the Duke before, but now they formed a closer relationship, as shown by Piero's dedication of two mathematical treatises to the Duke and his son respectively. This relationship can be seen in the personality and verism that Piero injected into paintings that featured the Duke himself. Piero thrived in the humanistic and creative atmosphere of the court of Urbino, and it is believed that his last works were painted there.

Piero returned to his hometown of Borgo San Sepolcro around 1480, where he would die eight years later. Vasari wrote that Piero went blind in his old age, and so was unfortunately unable to paint at all in his final years.

The Legacy of Piero della Francesca

While Piero was an eminent artist during his lifetime, he was better valued as a mathematician after his death. Although he was declared a "monarch of painting" in 1494, his work had fallen into relative obscurity by the 17 th century. Because most of his best works remained en el lugar, that is, in the churches and building in which they were painted, one had to travel to see his works, and as a result, his general reputation suffered. With the exception of his pupils, Perugino and Luca Signorelli, few Renaissance artists took inspiration from his work. This reputational oversight was only rectified in the mid-19 th century, when his works began to be studied, appreciated, and proudly displayed in museums and galleries. By happy coincidence, the rediscovery of Piero's works shortly preceded the first inklings of modern art in Europe. His use of exact geometry, simplified forms, and blocks of color, along with the powerful sense of serenity exuded by his paintings made him popular with artists from the end of the 19 th century to the present day. Drawn in by the atmospheric beauty of Piero's paintings, modern artists took inspiration from his mathematically based compositions and his flat blocks of color. Cezanne looked to his background landscapes, Balthus and Seurat to his arrangement of figures, and De Chirico to his use of perspective. To this day, he is praised as the "most modern of all Renaissance painters".


Important Art by Piero della Francesca

Polyptych of the Misericordia (1445-62)

Commissioned in 1445 by a Catholic confraternity, this polyptych was one of Piero della Francesco's earliest commissions however, despite the three year goal set by his patrons, Piero took 17 years to complete the painting, slowly working on it as he took on other projects. Given its large size, the polyptych was probably intended to be used as an altarpiece. At the center of the polyptych is the Madonna della Misericordia (Madonna of Mercy), to which the commissioning confraternity was dedicated. This iconography of the merciful Madonna sheltering the faithful under her cape was extremely popular in medieval Italy and can be traced back to the 13 th century. Often the kneeling figures under her cape would represent the patrons of the work, and in this case members of the confraternity are shown. To her right and left are Sts. Sebastian, John the Baptist, Andrew, and Bernadino. The tympanum above includes Christ's crucifixion in the center flanked by St. Benedict, the angel Gabriel, the Madonna of the Annunciation, and St. Francis. The predella at the bottom of the altarpiece contains scenes from the life of Christ and was painted by assistants.

One can see the influences of Masaccio, especially in the crucifixion scene, as well as Brunelleschi, but this polyptych encapsulates the stark simplicity and geometrical exactitude for which Piero della Francesca is most known. The form of the Madonna is almost perfectly symmetrical and is in itself formed of a series of geometrical shapes: her head is a perfect oval, her neck is cylindrical, and the folds of her robes are comprised of triangular forms and parallel lines. The gold background, a specific request of the confraternity, forced Piero to abandon the landscaped backgrounds, of which he was so fond. In a response to this restriction, Piero created space with the figures themselves. For example, the Madonna's curved robes echo an apse, an architecturally significant part of church designs, and Piero foreshortened the feet of the four saints on either side of her, suggesting that they are standing in a physical space instead of the featureless gold field. The use of limited colors as well as simple geometrical shapes give the polyptych an almost modern sense of "unreality" that prompts solemn contemplation on the part of the spectator.

The Baptism of Christ (c.1448-50)

A serene, classically posed Christ stands in the center of the painting with his hands in a gesture of prayer while St. John the Baptist pours water from a shell onto Christ's head, thus baptizing him. A group of three angels stands to the left behind a slender tree, and to the right, slightly further in the background, one sees another figure disrobing, preparing for baptism. The background landscape calls to mind the area around Piero's Tuscan hometown of Borgo San Sepolcro. Piero's trademark landscapes, simplified forms, and symbolic geometry can all be found in this early work.

The Baptism of Christ was originally the central panel of an altarpiece commissioned for the chapel of St. John the Baptist in an abbey in Borgo San Sepolcro and flanked by two other panels painted by Matteo di Giovanni. It is likely that above the central panel there was a roundel that depicted God, thus completing the symbolism of the Trinity: God the Father, the Holy Spirit (depicted as a dove), and Christ. During the Christian rite of baptism, the Holy Spirit enters the individual, marking him or her as a child of God.

The statuesque poses of the figures and the separation of the groups lends a sense of stillness and quiet to the panting, captivating viewers since its relocation to London in the late 19 th century. American artist Philip Guston wrote in 1965, "In The Baptism of Christ, we are suspended between the order we see and an apprehension that everything may again move."

The Death of Adam (1452-66)

The Death of Adam forms part of a large fresco cycle, The Legend of the True Cross, painted by Piero in the Basilica of San Francesco in Arezzo. He was commissioned to complete the fresco after the artist Bicci di Lorenzo died before finishing the original commission. On the right, an old, dying Adam, the first human created by God, implores his son Seth to visit the archangel Michael to acquire an oil that will prevent his death. In the center of the composition in the far background, we see that Michael instead gives Seth a seed of the Tree of Sin to place in his dying father's mouth in order to save his soul. Eventually, the Tree of Good and Evil would sprout from him, perhaps represented by the large tree in the center of the fresco. On the left, Adam's family bury him. In medieval times, Adam's death was in many ways seen as the beginning of Christ's story, as it was believed that the wood for the cross that Jesus was crucified on came from the Tree of Good and Evil. The story of the True Cross of Christ, and its rediscovery by the mother of Byzantine emperor Constantine the Great, was particularly important in this period when efforts were being made to unite the Western and Eastern churches.

Piero's famous geometry is crucial to the painting's composition. The tree forms a column at the perfect center of the painting, branching out into the clear sky. The monochromatic handling of color and triangular compositions in the groupings of figures give the painting a sense of visual unity. Even though three narrative stages are shown in the painting, Piero managed to make each scene seamlessly fit together in one continuous landscape. The pale and monochromatic palette of this painting, along with the geometrical shapes created by the bodies of figures, influenced several 20th-century artists, particularly Balthus.


Italian Art for Travelers

Images from top to bottom: detail, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise detail, Piero della Francesca, Legend of the True Cross detail, portraits of Cosimo de' Medici and Piero de' Medici, Benozzo Gozzoli, Procession of the Magi .

1204 Venetians sack Constantinople

1224 St. Francis receives the stigmata (wounds of Christ) at La Verna

1228 St. Francis canonized

1234 St. Dominic canonized

1260 Siena crushes Florence in the Battle of Montaperti

1266 Piazza San Marco in Venice is paved and enlarged

1299 Palazzo della Signoria begun in Florence

1302 Giotto receives the commission for the Arena Chapel in Padua

1304 Destructive fire in Florence

1308 Dante begins the Divine Comedy

1308 Siena Cathedral commissions Duccio to paint the Maesta&rsquo

1308 Bardi and Peruzzi banks fail in Florence

1333 The Arno floods Florence

1338-9 Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Good and Bad Government , Palazzo Publico, Siena

1348 Plague strikes Italy with devastating results

1368 St. Catherine&rsquos mystical marriage with Christ

1378 Uprising of the Ciompi, the Florentine wool workers

1397 Medici bank created in Florence

1400 Plague strikes Italy

1403-24 Lorenzo Ghiberti, North Door, Baptistery, Florence

1411-17 Donatello sculpts Saints Mark and George

1421 Ca&rsquo D&rsquoOro palace constructed in Venice

C. 1424 Masaccio and Masolino, Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence

1425 Florence, Venice and papacy war against Milan

1425-52 Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, East doors, Baptistery, Florence

1426-7 Massacio&rsquos Trinity , Santa Maria Novella, Florence

1427 Florence Catasto tax census

1431 Joan of Arc burned at the stake

1433 Medici exiled from Florence for one year

1435 Leon Alberti treatise On Painting

1436 Brunelleschi&rsquos Dome completed in Florence

1438-45 Fra Angelico, frescoes in Monastery of S. Marco, Florence

1450s Piero della Francesca, Legend of the True Cross , S. Francesco, Arezzo

1452 Leonardo da Vinci is born

1454 Major Italian powers agree to boundaries with the Peace of Lodi which reduces internal warfare

1454 War of Roses in England

1456 Gutenberg Bible printed

C. 1459 Benozzo Gozzoli, Procession of the Magi , Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence

1464 Cosimo de&rsquo Medici died

1469 Lorenzo de' Medici "the Magnificent" assumes power in Tuscany

1475 Michelangelo is born

1482 Botticelli, Primavera

1484-6 Botticelli, Birth of Venus

1490s First booked printed in Italy

1492 Columbus lands in the Indies

1492 Lorenzo the Magnificent dies

1494 Medici expelled from Florence

1494 Luca Pacioli codifies double entry bookkeeping system

1495-8 Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper

1497 Florentine fundamentalist religious leader Savonarola&rsquos &ldquoBonfire of the Vanities.&rdquo He seizes power from the Medici and is burned at the stake one year later.

1501 Amerigo Vespucci sails to South America

1503 Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa

1506 New St. Peter&rsquos breaks ground in Rome

1507 Giorgione, Sleeping Venus

1508 Michelangelo begins Sistine ceiling frescoes

1509 Henry VIII becomes King of England

1510-11 Raphael, Stanza della Segnature, Rome

1512 Copernicus publishes On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres with the sun as the center of the solar system

1516-18 Titian, Assumption of the Virgin

1517 Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses for church reform

1520 Martin Luther is excommunicated

1520 Artist Raphael Sanzio dies

1527 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V attacks Rome, known as the Sack of Rome

1536-41 Michelangelo, Last Judgement

1543 Copernicus published astronomical model of planets rotating around the sun


Mannerism (c. 1520-1580)

BRONZINO (Agnolo di Cosimo) (1503-1572)
'Portrait of Laura Battiferri', 1555 (oil on canvas)

METRO annerism is a 20th century term that was used to describe several exaggerated or mannered styles of art that evolved towards the end of the High Renaissance. Mannerist artists valued a personal and idealized response to beauty over the classical ideal of ‘truth to nature’. The more robust qualities of Mannerism are found in the exaggerated physiques and contorted figures from the late work of Michelangelo, Raphael, Tintoretto and El Greco. A more refined response to the Mannerist style is seen in the elegant and elongated figures from the paintings of Agnolo Bronzino, Parmigianino and Jacopo Pontormo.


Piero della Francesca

An Early Italian Renaissance painter, Piero della Francesca’s paintings were characterized by a serene humanism, geometric forms and use of perspective. Little is know about his early apprenticeships and art studies, but his early works show the influence of the Sienese artists which were active during his youth. It is known that he first received payments for his work as early as1439, when he was roughly around the age of 27. It is possible that during his stay in Florence he met such great masters as Brunelleschi, Fra’ Angelico, and Mantegna.

He began receiving his first public commissions in the 1440’s, executing works in San Sepolcro and Remini. During his stay in Remini it is though that Francesca may have met with the mathematician Leon Battista Alberti, as mathematics was one of his intellectual pursuits. Throughout his career, he traveled all around Italy, traveling to Rome in the late 1450’s when he was summoned by Pope Nicholas V to complete frescoes in the Papal capital.

During his long career, it is known that he met with many prominent artists, mathematicians and thinkers of his time, and continued to execute great works into his old age. He published three treatises on mathematics and geometry, which covered the topics of algebra, geometry, and arithmetic and many of his paintings are indicative of his knowledge of sold geometry and perspective. He died in 1492, on the very same day that Christopher Columbus reached the New World.

Piero della Francesca (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpjɛːro della franˈtʃeska]  listen (help·info) c. 1415 – 12 October 1492) was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. As testified by Giorgio Vasari in his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, to contemporaries he was also known as a mathematician and geometer. Nowadays Piero della Francesca is chiefly appreciated for his art. His painting is characterized by its serene humanism, its use of geometric forms and perspective. His most famous work is the cycle of frescoes The History of the True Cross in the church of San Francesco in the Tuscan town of Arezzo.

Piero was born and died in the town of Borgo Santo Sepolcro, modern-day Tuscany, to Benedetto de' Franceschi, a tradesman, and Romana di Perino da Monterchi, members of the Florentine and Tuscan Franceschi noble family.

He was most probably apprenticed to the local painter Antonio di Giovanni d'Anghiari, because in documents about payments it is noted that he was working with Antonio in 1432 and May 1438. Besides, he certainly took notice of the work of some of the Sienese artists active in San Sepolcro during his youth e.g. Sassetta. In 1439 Piero received, together with Domenico Veneziano, payments for his work on frescoes for the church of Sant'Egidio in Florence, now lost. In Florence he must have met leading masters like Fra Angelico, Luca della Robbia, Donatello and Brunelleschi. The classicism of Masaccio's frescoes and his majestic figures in the Santa Maria del Carmine were for him an important source of inspiration. Dating of Piero's undocumented work is difficult because his style does not seem to have developed over the years.

In 1442 he was listed as eligible for the City Council of San Sepolcro. Three years later, he received the commission for the Madonna della Misericordia altarpiece for the church of the Misericordia in Sansepolcro, completed in the early 1460s. In 1449 he executed several frescoes in the Castello Estense and the church of Sant'Andrea of Ferrara, also lost. His influence was particularly strong in the later Ferrarese allegorical works of Cosimo Tura.

Two years later he was in Rimini, working for the condottiero Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta. In this sojourn he executed in 1451 the famous fresco of St. Sigismund and Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta in the Tempio Malatestiano, as well as Sigismondo's portrait. In Rimini Piero may have met the famous Renaissance mathematician and architect Leon Battista Alberti, who had redesigned the Tempio Malatestiano although it is known that Alberti directed the execution of his designs for the church by correspondence with his building supervisor. Thereafter Piero was active in Ancona, Pesaro and Bologna.

In 1454 he signed a contract for the Polyptych of Saint Augustine in the church of Sant'Agostino in Sansepolcro. The central panel of this polyptic is lost and the four panels of the wings, with representations of Saints, are scattered around the world. A few years later, summoned by Pope Nicholas V, he moved to Rome: here he executed frescoes in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, of which only fragments remain. Two years later he was again in the Papal capital, for frescoes in Vatican Palace which have also been destroyed.

This is a part of the Wikipedia article used under the Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). The full text of the article is here →


  • 4th century BCE – Etruscans build wall around Arretium. [1]
  • 294 BCE – Arretium attacked by Gallic forces. [1]
  • 1st century BCE – Roman amphitheatre of Arezzo [it] built. [2]
  • 49 BCE – Arretium occupied by forces of Caesar. [3]
  • 337 CE – Roman Catholic Diocese of Arezzo established (approximate date). [4]
  • 1026 CE – Guido of Arezzo writes musical treatise Micrologus (approximate date).
  • 1032 – Cathedral consecrated. [2]
  • 1111 – Arezzo sacked by forces of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor. [5]
  • 13th century – Santa Maria della Pieve church remodelled.
  • 1215 – University of Arezzo founded.
  • 1248 – Guglielmino Ubertini [it] becomes bishop. [5]
  • 1262 – Fraternita dei Laici [it] founded. [2]
  • 1278 – Arezzo Cathedral construction begins.
  • 1288 – Battle of Pieve al Toppo fought in Siena Aretine forces win.
  • 1289 – Battle of Campaldino fought near town Florentines win. [6]
  • 1290 – Basilica of San Francesco, Arezzo, start of construction of church of St. Francis inside the city walls
  • 1304 – Future poet Petrarch born in Arezzo. [5]
  • 1312 – Guido Tarlati becomes bishop. [5]
  • 1320 – Town wall built. [6]
  • 1375
      [it] (church) built. [it] construction begins.
    • 1796 – Earthquake.
    • 1799 – Anti-French Viva Maria (movement) active.
    • 1808 – Arezzo becomes part of the French Arno (department). [cita necesaria]
    • 1810 – Accademia Petrarca di Lettere, Arti e Scienze di Arezzo founded. (en)
    • 1833 – Teatro Petrarca [it] (theatre) opens. [cita necesaria]
    • 1860 – Circondario di Arezzo [it] (administrative region) established.
    • 1866 – Arezzo railway station opens.
    • 1880 – Monumento ai Caduti del Risorgimento [it] (monument) erected in the Piazza del Popolo.
    • 1881 – Banca Mutua Popolare Aretina in business.
    • 1886 – Ferrovia Appennino Centrale [it] (railway) begins operating.
    • 1888 – Ferrovia Casentinese [it] (railway) begins operating.
    • 1897 – Population: 45,289. [8]
    • 2008 – Courthouse of Arezzo built.
    • 2013 – Population: 98,352. [10]
    • 2015
        becomes mayor.
    • 31 May: Tuscan regional election, 2015 held.
      • , Marche region , Tuscany region , Tuscany , Tuscany , Umbria region , Tuscany , Tuscany , Tuscany , Lazio region , Tuscany
      1. ^ aBCdmiDomenico 2002.
      2. ^ aBCdmi Frank Dabell. "Arezzo". Oxford Art Online. Missing or empty |url= (help) Retrieved 7 January 2017
      3. ^Bunbury 1872.
      4. ^
      5. "Chronology of Catholic Dioceses: Italy". Norway: Roman Catholic Diocese of Oslo . Retrieved 7 January 2017 .
      6. ^ aBCdmiFatucchi 2004.
      7. ^ aBBritannica 1910.
      8. ^ aBBerti 1990.
      9. ^
      10. "Italy". Statesman's Year-Book. London: Macmillan and Co. 1899 – via HathiTrust.
      11. ^
      12. "Italy". Statesman's Year-Book. London: Macmillan and Co. 1913.
      13. ^
      14. "Resident Population". Demo-Geodemo. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica . Retrieved 7 January 2017 .

      This article incorporates information from the Italian Wikipedia. [1]


      Piero della Francesca, Flagellation of Christ

      Piero della Francesca’s Flagellation of Christ is proof that, sometimes, good things really do come in small packages. Despite the panel’s size (only 58.4 cm × 81.5 cm), the painting has been a mainstay in the last century in discussions of Quattrocento (fifteenth century) painting. An early example of the use of oil paint—though Piero used both tempera and oil in its execution—the work depicts the moment in Christ’s Passion when he was whipped before Pontius Pilate. Though the New Testament says very little about this moment, mentioning only that Pilate ordered Christ to be flogged, later Christian writers wrote much about the event and even speculated about the number of lashes Christ received. Though the New Testament does not say that Christ was tied to a column while being whipped, during the fifteenth century this became a convention in depictions of the scene, which Piero here follows.

      A masterpiece of the early Renaissance

      This painting is a masterpiece of the Early Renaissance. The figures are expressive especially noteworthy is the face of the bearded man in the foreground. They are also given real volume through the use of modeling (the passage from light to dark over the surface of an object). True to Humanism, the painting shows a preoccupation with the classical world, as seen especially in the architecture and inclusion of the golden statue in the background. Above all, Piero’s obsession with perspective (the naturalistic recession in to space), is evident. In fact, the artist was the author of a treatise on perspective, entitled De Prospectiva Pingendi (On the Perspective of Painting) and was also known as a mathematician and geometer.

      Three men in foreground (detail), Piero della Francesca, Flagellation of Christ, C. 1455-65, oil and tempera on wood, 58.4 × 81.5 cm (Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino)

      Who are the men in the foreground?

      But Piero della Francesca’s picture is also highly unusual. The flagellation, which is the gruesome main event, takes place in the background, while three extraneous men are painted prominently in the foreground. Piero uses two main devices to further emphasize the division of subjects. The first is setting. While the flagellation takes place inside of a covered courtyard with dramatic black and white checked tiles, the men are outdoors standing on the reddish tiles that pervade the scene. The second is the use of the orthogonal lines of the perspective, which divide the painting in half, and also delineate the interior and exterior space.

      Not only is the painting strange because Piero marginalized the primary subject, relegating it to the back of the painting, but also because art historians cannot agree on who the three men in the foreground are. Theories abound.

      The traditional identification of these three men is that the young man in the center is Oddantanio da Montefeltro, ruler of Urbino, flanked on either side by his advisors. All three of these men were killed in a conspiracy. In this case, it is suggested that the patron of the painting was Federigo da Montefeltro (who was later immortalized in a famous diptych by Piero) to commemorate his brother’s death and compare his innocence to that of Christ.

      Art historian Marilyn Lavin offered another notable interpretation of the painting. She suggested that the two older men are Ludovico Gonzaga and a friend, who had both recently lost their sons, symbolized by the young man in the center. The painting in this case would compare the pain that the two fathers felt to that of Christ during his Passion.

      Other art historians have suggested that the painting is an allegory for the suffering of Constantinople after its fall to the Muslims in 1453. In this view, the two men watching the flagellation are Murad II (the Islamic sultan who waged a decades-long war against Christianity), and Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos (against whom that war was waged). The emperor had gone to the 1438 Council of Florence to ask for protection from the Muslims, but received no aid. The three enigmatic men, then, represent nobles who stood by and let the Christian nation be destroyed.

      Christ tied to a column, being flogged by two men (detail), Piero della Francesca, Flagellation of Christ, C. 1455-65, oil and tempera on wood, 58.4 × 81.5 cm (Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino)

      Still another interpretation suggests that the key to understanding the painting lay in the lost inscription on the frame, which putatively said, “Convenerunt in unum,” or “They come into one.” This is a line from the Bible that was traditionally read each year on Good Friday, the day that commemorates Christ’s Passion. “They” would refer then to the Sanhedrinists, or councilmen of Israel, who were present during Christ’s suffering. In this way of looking at the panel, Piero did not include a contemporary political message, but rather painted a narrative that is true to the text, and depicts exactly what it purports to, the flagellation of Christ.

      No definitive interpretation

      The enigmatic nature of Piero della Francesca’s Flagellation underscores the fact that works of art, regardless of their age, continue to engender interesting art historical research. In the case of this painting, it is unlikely that a definitive interpretation will ever be accepted, as there is little documentation to support a single argument. Perhaps this ambiguity is partially why the painting continues to intrigue, and, almost 600 years later, grants multiple entry points to the viewer, drawing him into Piero’s fictional world.


      Ver el vídeo: Piero della Francesca, Portrait of Federico da Montefeltro and Portrait of Battista Sforza,1466 (Junio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Clust

    Considero que no estás bien. Estoy seguro. Vamos a discutir. Escríbeme en PM, nos comunicaremos.

  2. Matt

    si tambien gracias

  3. Samulabar

    Esta es la frase simplemente hermosa

  4. Kajizilkree

    Pasa todos los límites.

  5. Erhardt

    Bravo, idea notable



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